Sunday, July 17, 2005

书法线条“五体”说

中国书法是抽象的线条艺术。线条则是书法的基础、灵魂,是书法赖以延续生命的惟一媒介,古往今来多少书法家为之顶礼膜拜,如痴如醉!

  书法的线条何以具备如此魅力?

  或许我们可以从线条的形体中找到正确的答案。线条由骨、筋、脉、肉、皮五者构成,缺一不可,分而为五,合则为一。“骨、筋、脉、肉、皮”,也即中医之“五体”,是构成整个人身形体的重要组织。早在公元前3世纪的我国著名医著《黄帝内经》中就有关于“五体”的论述:“骨为干,脉为营,筋为刚,肉为墙,皮肤坚……”总体来说,以上描述非常确切,符合现代医学。

  书法中最早运用医学术语来描述线条的,大概要数晋卫夫人《笔阵图》:“善笔力者多骨,不善笔力者多肉;多骨微肉者,谓之筋书;多肉微骨者,谓之墨猪。”从此,“骨”、“肉”、“筋”等象征力量、生命的字眼开始出现在描绘书法线条的语汇中。自晋以降,各个朝代皆有论述。如清康有为《广艺舟双楫》说:“书若人然,须备筋骨血肉。”更有甚者,元陈绎曾《翰林要诀》和清张廷相、鲁一贞《玉燕楼书法》中,都出现了专论“血法”、“骨法”、“筋法”、“肉法”的章节,可遗憾的是,没有“皮法”一说。线条有骨有肉,岂能无皮?无皮覆体,抛筋露骨,血肉模糊,这样的线条岂能给人以美的享受,倒是给人以头破血流、满身创伤之感吧!因此,线条必须五体具备,不可缺也。下面浅述线条各体。

  “骨”,是指线条刚劲有力、气势雄强的状貌。“映日照之,线条中心有一缕浓墨,日光不透”(《梦溪笔谈》),这是沈括对徐铉书法线条妙处的称赞。这日光不透的线条中心,便是线条之骨,四周略透的便是皮肉筋脉。这种现象与医学上X线片相似,片中只见骨,隐约处则为筋脉肉皮。因“线条中心有一缕浓墨”,才使我们感觉这种线条特别有厚度,可“触摸”到,于是二维空间变成三维空间,便产生立体感。清刘熙载《艺概》:“字有果敢之力,骨也”。可见力是骨体的表现。书法历来强调筋骨及其作用,以骨健筋丰者为上品。清朱履贞《书法捷要》亦云“然血肉生于筋骨,筋骨不立,则血肉不能自荣。故书以筋骨为先。”《玉燕楼书法·骨法》云:“夫骨,非棱角峭厉之谓也。必也贯其力于画中,敛其锋于字里,则纵横大小无或懈矣。惟会心于‘直’、‘紧’二字,斯能得之。”因而,线条骨体与高超的用笔技巧(中锋用笔)最为相关。 

  “筋”,是指线条紧敛、浑劲内含的状貌。《素问·五脏生成篇》“诸筋者,皆属于节”,筋附着于骨而聚于关节,是联结关节、肌肉的组织,可见筋与骨肉的关系极为密切。《说文解字》释筋为“肉之力也”,《艺概》亦言:“有含忍之力,筋也”,因此,“筋”本身是力的表现,而且这种力量是有深度的,偏于内含而不外露。《翰林要诀》:“字之筋,笔锋是也。断处藏之,连处度之。藏者首尾蹲抢是也;度者空中打势,飞度笔意也。”古人一般把笔锋比作线条之筋,这种说法符合“筋”之本义。若笔锋断处不藏,连处不度,则露筋之病生也。

  “脉”,是指线条丰润活脱的状貌。它本义是指血管,《说文解字》释为:“血理分(斜)行体者。”血在脉中循行,外达皮肉筋骨,主要是对皮肉筋骨起营养和滋润的作用。故《难经》有“血主濡之”之说,但血必须循行于脉中,若逸出脉外,即失去濡养功能。前人谓水墨乃字之血,过淡则伤神采,太浓则滞笔锋,需做到“浓欲其活,淡欲其华”(清周星莲《临池管见》)。《翰林要诀》亦云:“字生于墨,墨生于水,水者字之血也。”故线条脉体中循行之血乃水墨也。水墨调和,运用恰当,才能使线条产生丰润而活脱的状貌,才能构成生动活泼的生命之体。《广艺舟双楫》言.“血浓骨老,筋藏肉莹,加之姿态奇逸,可谓美矣”以及蔡邕《九势》中所谓“下笔用力,肌肤之丽”,其“骨老”、“筋藏”、“肉莹”、“肌肤之丽”等种种美的质感都与水墨(“血”)相关。故历来书家对水墨要求很高,诸如墨要生墨,水要新汲,研墨要凉等。

  “肉”,是指线条丰满柔韧之状貌。《玉燕楼书法·肉法》:“字之肉系乎毫之肥
瘦,手之轻重也。然尤视平水与墨。水淫则肉散,水啬则肉枯。墨浓则肉痴,墨淡则肉瘠。粗则肉滞,积则肉凝。”《翰林要诀·肉法》:“捺满、提飞,字之肉,笔之是也……捺满即肥,提飞则瘦。肥者,毫端分数足也;瘦者,毫端分数省也。”因此,线条的肉质,取决于用笔的轻重深浅及施墨的浓淡枯湿。但肉之“肥”和“瘦”,应视具体情况而定:疏处、平处要捺满,密处、险处要提飞。

  “皮”,是指线条轮廓光滑、清晰、亮丽的状貌,起着包裹血肉,不使筋骨外露的作用。(九势》:“下笔用力,肌肤之丽”是说皮肉所具有的“丽”的质感。黄宾虹也说:“凡作画必须能用饱墨,否则笔枯露骨,画无皮肉;使人生憎。”这两个例子,足以证明线条“皮”的重要性。清包世臣《艺舟双楫·述书下》云:“笔锋着纸,水即下注,而笔力足以摄墨,不使旁溢,故墨精在纸内。”“若笔力欠佳,无以摄墨,水墨外溢,皮破血流,成为墨团,或水墨漫漶成块,线条形体何在?因此,线条之“皮”与笔力最为相关。由于宣纸渗晕而产生线条轮廓的含糊朦胧,倒是给人带来空灵虚玄,包孕姻组之感。这种墨迹中的朦胧美,恰如《书谱·序》所云“乍显乍晦,若行若藏”,它暗示着生命律动,诚如我们目睹运动员汗出涔涔的情景。这与皮破血流截然不同,是我们应该注意的:

  书法线条要求五体具备,且还需五体匀称协调,否则线条就会丧失美的质感、美的享受。诸如墨猪、肉鸭、春蚓、秋蛇等线条,徒令人生憎,何具美哉?另外,线条形体是神采的载体,若线条五体不备,更何言意态与神韵呢?

  宋代书法理论家姜夔在《续书谱·血脉篇》讲到:“予尝历观古之名书,无不点划振动,如见其挥运之时。”居然静卧纸面的线条和点会“振动”起来,可见线条是一个活生生的机体。 “五体”说的引入,是人生生命对线条的观照,赋予了书法线条生动活泼的生命,充分体现了中华民族审美的意向。


出处: 《书法导报》 作者:金剑铭

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