Friday, July 01, 2005

怎样临习《勤礼碑》之一

唐代的《颜勤礼碑》,是颜真卿为其曾诅父颜勤礼立的墓碑,简称《勤礼碑》。


颜真卿(709─785),字清臣,京兆万年(今陕西西安)人,祖籍山东临沂,因此也有人说他是琅邪人。唐开元进土,任御史,因被杨国忠排斥,出任平原太守。安禄山叛乱时,颜起兵讨伐,被推为盟主。后入京,历官至史部尚书、太子太师,封鲁国公。后人以其官名尊称'平原'或'鲁公'。德宗时,李希烈叛乱,他受命前往劝谕,李希烈胁之降,不屈被害。



颜真卿自幼即爱好书法,常用黄土在墙上练字,曾受过张旭和徐浩的传授,又结合篆隶和魏碑的笔意,开创了自己的风格。他博学,工词章,善正、行、草书,用笔遒婉严整,字体刚健笃实。他和怀素论书法时说'写字应用折钗笔法',就是用笔要像折金钗那样有力。《宣和书谱》说他的字'点如坠石,画如夏云,钩如屈铁,
戈如发弩,干变万化,各具一体'。他的字体对后世的影响很大。唐以后的书家,不少人都临习过颜字。


《勤礼碑》系颜真卿撰文并书。书法苍劲有力,是他晚年的成熟之作。颜真卿一生写的碑很多,都题有他当时历官的全部职衔,独此碑只题'曾孙鲁郡开国公',这是他丢掉官职,被贬为吉州司马期间写的。


此碑1922年在今西安社会路出土,螭首方座,高268厘米,宽92厘米。四面刻字,碑阳书字19行,阴书字20行,每行各38字。碑的左侧书字5 行,每行37字。右侧的铭文已被磨去。1948年,《勤礼碑》被移存西安碑林。碑林中所藏颜碑,多因长期捶拓磨损,惟此碑出土晚,磨损少,字迹未失原来神韵,是不可多得的名碑。

《勤礼碑》拓片(局部)


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